architecture of bengal

The bungalow style is a notable architectural export of Bengal. The main construction material used in modern time is corrugated steel sheets. [6] Such houses were traditionally small, only one storey and detached, and had a wide veranda were adapted by the British, who used them as houses for colonial administrators in summer retreats in the Himalayas and in compounds outside Indian cities. Tombs of saints and ghazis, when attached to dargah complexes, are called by the comprehensive term dargah; the Persian term astana for a holy tomb is not uncommon in Bengal. Medieval and early modern periods The ornaments depict the hangers hanging from the niche on the sides of the sarcophagus to recall the motifs with the bulbs in the mosques of the Adina Mosque built by Ghiyasuddin’s father Sikandar Shah in 776 of Hijra (1375-6 CE); his mortal symbolism was developed in the medieval Iranian graves. The capital is Kolkata. Graves of some of the important saints in Bengal – Shan Jalal (R) at Sylhet, Alaul Haq (R) and Nur Qutbul Alam (R) at Chhoti Dargha, Paqndua, are in open enclosures and conform to the orthodox belief that "only the pious deeds of the dead will offer him protection and shade". Local traditions are often relied upon to hypothesise the identity of a tomb, although internal evidence implicit in the technique and style of construction provides a stronger basis for establishing the authenticity of a burial place. To accommodate the dome on the square tomb chamber, the phase of transition in both the tombs is achieved by squinches resting on brackets. The tomb and mosque form a complex within a walled siege that flows through a portico in the south-east. The Tin Netar Mazar in Dhaka marking the burial place of the three pre-Liberation Bengali political leaders – A. K. Fazlul Huq, Khawaja Nazimuddin and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy – is an interpretation of the traditional Islamic architecture motif of arch. Ancient Bengal was part of a network of urban and trading hubs stretching to Ancient Persia. Tombs in Bengal may be classified under two chronological periods: Sultanate or pre-Mughal, and Mughal. In the context of the general use of brick in the Bengal architecture, the tomb of Bibi Parit is unparalleled for the extensive use of marble brought separately from Jaipur, the black basal by Gaya and the sandstone from Chunari for interiors. Two important tombs in the Eklakhi tradition in Bangladesh are those of Khan Jahan in Bagerhat dated 863 of Hijra (1459 CE) and Badr Pirit of Chittagong. The Palaus Dynasty created a special form of Buddhist art known as the “School of Art Sculpture School”. The Bungalow style houses are still very popular in the rural Bengal. The last example of this type in Bengal is the tomb at Khushbagh, Murshidabad, where lie buried Alivardi Khan and Siraj ud-Daulah with other members of their family. Previously they were built with wood, bamboo and a straw called “Khar”. It extends 507½ feet from north to south and 285½ feet from east to west. The brick tomb chamber, externally square with curved cornice, the octagonal corner towers, and an entrance on each side, is internally converted into an octagon by thick brickwork left hollow at four corners to accommodate four small cells; the dome rests on squinches carried on embedded stone pillars. Decorative carved or moulded plaques of terracotta (the same material as the brick) are a special feature. Bengal, Bengali Bangla, historical region in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent, generally corresponding to the area inhabited by speakers of the Bengali language and now divided between the Indian state of West Bengal and the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.Bengal formed part of most of the early empires that controlled northern India. This soil structure is reflected in the building material chosen by the Bengali temple designers. [5] The term baṅgalo, meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style". Apart from the Palavi and Phamsana influence on the architectural style it is also closely connected to the Bhanja style of temples from Mayurbhanj district of Orrisa. Bengali Mortal Architecture An old photo of Madanmohan-jiu Temple, Samta. Shaheed Minar, or the Martyr's monument, in Dhaka, commemorates the struggle for the Bengali language. Like Eklakhi’s style, it was not confined to mortal buildings but became popular in various structural forms. Asma Serajuddin, 'Mughal Tombs in Dhaka', Dhaka: Past Present Future, (Ed by Sharif Uddin Ahmed), Dhaka, 1991. Bengal portal v t e The Bengal region, which includes the Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has many architectural relics and monuments dating back thousands of years. Among the tombs of the first ghazis, the mazar-madrasa complex at Tribeni, ascribed to Zafar Khan on the basis of two inscriptions dated 698 AH (1298 AD) and 713 AH (1313 AD), belongs to the category of open-air tombs. The roof structure has also been affected by the severe floods of the Gang and Terai delta proving during the monsoons, has effectively been curved most of the time to get rid of the large amount of water as quickly as possible and so thus increasing the lifespan of the structure. Mortal architecture is a type of building erected on the graves. Mughal Bengali mosques also developed a distinct provincial style. Nov 21, 2016 - Architecture Of West Bengal - Informative & researched article on Architecture Of West Bengal from Indianetzone, the largest free encyclopedia on India. Palas created a distinctive form of Buddhist art known as the The octagonal graves appeared for the first time in Bengal during the Mogule period. A notable example is the tomb of Fath Khan at Gaur where a plastered brick structure, having a dochala roof over a single rectangular tomb chamber with entrances on the south and west, is built in the walled compound of the KADAM RASUL shrine. Tomb architecture of Bengal. The architectural evidence generally has been from the Gupta Empire period onwards. Shah Safi’s grave (dead at the end of the 13th or early 14th century) at the dargah complex in Chhota Pandua (Hughli, Western Bengal ) in its current state is the mogul remodeling of a para-canle with a curved frame . But had we spent only one percent of that money for the excavation of Somapura Mahavihara, who knows what extraordinary discoveries could have been made".[1]. Decorative carved or moulded plaques of terracotta are all considered to be a special feature of the Sultanate architecture. In Bengal there are four remarkable examples of this type: (i) Shah Niamatullah’s grave (died in the second half of XVII century) in Firuzpur, Gaur (Bangladesh), attributed to Shah Shujas patronage (1639-60); (II) the tomb of Bibi Par in Lalbagh, Dhaka; (III) the tomb of Bibi Mariam in Dhaka; and (IV) Bakht Hum’s tomb at Rajmahal, attributed to Shaista Khan’s patronage and dating back to the late seventeenth century. It featured multiple and single domed mosques with complex terracotta and stone ornamentation. Mughal Architecture in Bengal Mughal architecture in Bengal is a noted presence of patronaged acts of nobility in absence of royal hands. Funerary inscriptions contain such terms as maqbara, turba, qabr, gunbad, rawza. The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements with influences from different parts of the world. Architectural and epigraphic remains of the pre-Mughal and Mughal periods point to the burial places of three groups of people- conquerors and nobility, saints, and ghazis (victors in religious wars). Rotno Mondirs are again a classic architectural type of temples in Bengal. Tomb architecture is a type of building erected over the graves. They were distinct from the Indo-Islamic style practiced at Delhi and often displayed definitely original qualities. The corner towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in medieval Southeast Asia. The tombstones of the tomb, the square exterior with a curved frame, the octagonal angular tower and an entrance on each side, are internally turned into an octagonal brickwork brick emptied in four angles to accommodate four cells of small; the dome stands on the attached stone columns. The mosque architecture of the independent Bengal Sultanate period (14th, 15 and 16th centuries) represents the most important element of the Islamic architecture of Bengal. A group of qubba type tombs at Dhaka ascribed to the female members of Nawab Shaista Khan's household are delightful examples of funerary structures. Bengali architecture includes ancient urban architecture, religious architecture, rural vernacular architecture, colonial townhouses and country houses, and modern urban styles. Antiquity The ornament depicting lamps suspending from niches on the sides of the sarcophagus recalls lamp motifs in the mihrabs of the Adina Mosque built by Ghiyasuddin's father Sikandar Shah in 776 AH (1375–6 AD); its funerary symbolism had already developed in the medieval tombs in Iran. The extant Mughal tombs are larger in number than the Sultanate tombs and show greater variety of form by exploiting the parent style. [Asma Serajuddin]. This type presents interesting variations in design – the tombs of Niamatullah and Bibi Mariam have verandahs for ambulatories; Bibi Pari's and Bakht Huma's tombs have passages on sides and chambers on corners. Dakshineswar Kali Temple is one of Bhanja-style examples, while the smaller Shiva Shrines along the river bank are examples of the southern Bengal’s roof style, albeit in much smaller proportions. East Pakistan was the center of the Bengali modernist movement started by Muzharul Islam. Again, the tombs of Niamatullah, Bibi Pari and Bakht Huma have three arch openings and that of Bibi Mariam has five arch openings on each of the four sides. See more ideas about Architecture, Built environment, Bengal. 2020-12-19 20:30:00 2020-12-19 21:30:00 Asia/Kolkata Murshidabad: The Architecture of Bengal's Former Capital. Somapura Mahavihara , a creation of Dharmapala in Paharpur, Bangladesh, is the largest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian subcontinent and has been described as a “pleasure for the eyes of the world.” UNESCO has proclaimed it a World Heritage Monument in 1985. The tomb consists of two roofless square rooms raised on a stone plinth. Compared to the simple qubba layout, its elaborate plan rendered this type exclusive. The Pala architectural style was followed throughout south-eastern Asia and China, Japan, and Tibet. The Arabic word qabr is used for a grave; the Bengali word samadhi for a tomb; and the Persian term mazar is an honorific appellation for the tomb of a person of high rank. The Pala Empire was a Buddhist dynasty in control of Bengal from the 8th to the 12th century. Bishnupuri in the Southern District of Western Bengal Bankura has a series of temples that are built by the Malla Dynasty, are examples of this style. This is the reason why discussions on the architectural history of Bengal have generally commenced from the Pāla period (c. 750 AD onwards). Another good example of the dochala type is the side chambers attached to the square tomb chamber of Anwar Shahid in Burdwan. As in Muslim countries, the orders of the hadith to practice taswiyat al-quburin, that is, to level the grave according to the surrounding terrain, does not stop the erection of a tomb over the level of the terrain, the erection of cenotaphs of bricks or stones, or monumental mausoleum buildings in Bengal. It existed in pre-Mogule and Mogule periods. This is because of the Bengalian soil structure. The qubba or the domed cubic monument is the oldest and commonest type of tomb in Bengal, as in other parts of the Muslim world. It has a peculiar configuration; its breadth varies from 200 miles at one point to hardly 10 miles at another. The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements with influences from different parts of the world. The temple structures contain gabled roofs which are colloquially called the chala, For example, a gabled roof with an eight sided pyramid structured roof with be called “ath chala” or literally the eight faces of the roof. Dr. Stella Kramrisch says: “The art of Bihar and Bengal exerted a long influence over Nepal , Burma, Sri Lanka and Javas.” Dhimani and Vittpala were two prominent sculptors of the Palais Empire. At Monghyr (Bihar, India) this tradition is echoed in the tomb of Shah Nafa, built in 903 AH (1497–8 AD) by Alauddin Hussain Shah's son, Prince Daniyal. The period of British rule saw wealthy Bengali families (especially zamindar estates) employing European firms to design houses and palaces. These tombs resemble each other in many ways. This is believed to be the burial place of Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad (dead in 1433), his wife and son, Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah. The role of modernity in the making of architecture in Bengal, and the nature of architectural modernism itself are topics that need a better understanding. May 3, 2016 - Architecture of Bengal: Pala Empire The Pala Empire was a Buddhist dynasty in control of Bengal from the 8th to the 12th century. The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements with influences from different parts of the world. • The most enduring legacy of the Bengal Sultanate is its architectural heritage. Formerly lavishly decorated, the surface embellishes traces of floral paintings on the interior plaster and a variety of terracotta tiles and tiled tiles in the exterior. Most of these temples are covered on the outer surface with terracotta reliefs that contain a multitude of centuries-old materials that make these important to rebuild social fabric from these times. The architectural adoption of a simple Bengalian hut with its dochala or chauchala roof became a significant tombstone in the seventeenth century in the Bengalian architecture. The roof structure also has been the effect of the heavy rainfall that the Ganges river delta and the Terai experiences throughout the monsoon, it has been curved effectively in most cases to get rid of the huge amount of water as soon as possible and thereby increasing the lifetime of the structure. The Bengal Region has rightly been named the “Lady of the East”. Sultanate-era mosques featured multiple domes or a single dome, richly designed mihrabs and minbars and an absence of minarets. Mogule tombstones are usually raised on platforms but sometimes blind blind panels. No traces remain of Husain Shah's (d 1519 AD) black basalt sarcophagi, which survived until c 1846 AD, or the tombs of later sultans at Banglakot at GAUR. The main construction material used in modern time is corrugated steel sheets. an ambulatory consisting of a continuous verandah or chambers and passages round the tomb chamber. Tombs Mogule Dr. Stella Kramrisch says: "The art of Bihar and Bengal exercised a lasting influence on that of Nepal, Burma, Ceylon and Java." These are made of latex and tulle, leaving them under the mercy of the harsh weather conditions of Southern Bengal. Octagonal tombs appear for the first time in Bengal during the Mughal period. Alivardi Khan wished to be buried in his much-loved garden, Khushbagh. Another good example of the dochala type is the side chambers attached to the Anwar Shahid’s square in Burdwan. In Chittagong, the tomb next to the Bagh-i Hamza Mosque is a good example of this type. In addition to its basic shape as a cubic dome, during the mundle dube period, it obtained two further forms, consisting of attachments: a southern veranda in the square mortal and Oct 28, 2019 - Explore Sayeed Rahman's board "BD Architecture" on Pinterest. The other tomb, ascribed to Dara Begum, is now without any grave. Despite the small number of surviving mortal inscriptions, a systematic study of mortal architecture in Bengal based on the historical sequence has become difficult because most of the tombs in the present state are without inscriptions to mark the names of the dead or dates the construction of graves. The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, Assam's Barak Valley, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements from the Indian subcontinent, with influences from different parts of the world.wikipediawikipedia Tombs in Bengal can be classified in two chronological periods: Sultanate or Pre-Mogule and Mogule. Eklakhi style became a symbol of Bengal’s architecture during later periods Iliyas Shahit and Husain Shahit and continued in the early Mogule period. The most famous monument built by the Pala emperors was the Grand Vihara of Somapura, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The dome gained its exterior appearance by having a right frame. But the temples of south Bengal is a distinction due to its roofing style so unique and closely related to the paddy roofed traditional building style of rural Bengal. Remains of a double-storeyed tomb at Arifil, Brahmanbaria, containing two graves in the basement and two corresponding cenotaphs in the upper storey recall in a modest form the arrangement in I'timad al-Daul's tomb. Baitul Mukarram in Dhaka is the National Mosque of Bangladesh. The bungalow style is a notable architectural export of Bengal. Tomb architecture is a type of building erected over the graves. The origin of the bungalow has its roots in the historical Province of Bengal. Islamic influence in the Bengali architecture can be seen from the 12th century. The corner towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in medieval Southeast Asia. The first tomb believed to be of Khwaja Shahbaz who, on the evidence of the inscription on the adjacent mosque, built the mosque in 1089 AH (1679 AD), is located at Ramna, Dhaka. The Bengal region, which includes the Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has many architectural relics and monuments dating back thousands of years. The cityscapes of modern Bengali cities are dominated by midsized skycrapers and often called concrete jungles. Most of these temples are covered on the outer surface with terra cotta reliefs which contains plenty of secular materials making these important to reconstruct the social structure from these times. The archaeological sites of Mahasthangarh, Paharpur, Wari-Bateshwar ruins, Chandraketugarh and Mainamati provide evidence of a highly organized urban civilization in the region. In the areas which had a strong indigenous tradition of workmanship in masonry, regional styles of… The architectural scheme of the second type finds a prototype in the tomb of I'timad al-Daula erected by Nurjahan at Agra between c 1622–28 AD. The architectural adaptation of a simple Bengali hut with its dochala or chauchala roof became a significant tomb type in seventeenth century Bengal architecture. The most distinctive feature of Khan Jahan's tomb is its lavishly inscribed sarcophagus. The corner towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in medieval Southeast Asia. Dhaka and Murshidabad were the hubs of Mughal architecture. The extant tombs in Bengal are small in number but show significant variety and interesting adaptation of the conventional Islamic form to regional tastes and requirements. Mir Jafar lies buried at Jafarganj graveyard amidst a thousand open-air graves. In rural Bangladesh , they are often called “Bangla Ghar” (bengal-style houses). The extant tombs in Bengal are small in number but show significant variety and interesting adaptation of the conventional Islamic form to regional tastes and requirements. Dakshineswar Kali Temple is one example of the Bhanja style while the additional small temples of Shiva along the river bank are example of southern Bengal roof style though in much smaller dimension. The Most Important Monument in the Eklakhi Tradition is Bahram Saqqas Mausoleum in Burdwan who died during the reign of Akbar in 970 Hijra (1562-3 CE). The qubba at Imadpur, Bihar Sharif (India), identified as the tomb of the first Turkish conqueror of Bengal, Bakhtiyar Khalji (d. 1206 AD), is dated to a later period on stylistic grounds by Z. Another roofing material for Bungalow houses has been red clay tiles. Colonial period He has been attached as a prayer room of the Lalmatia Jami Mosque; the mihrabi in the western wall of the original gravesite room eased this transformation. The unique feature about Rotno Mondirs is that, they bear uncanny resemblance to medieval European Castles, although being completely unrelated to them as most of these types of temples were built before the European arrival. Previously they had been constructed from wood, bamboo and a kind of straw called “Khar”. It is a Quadrangular building, consisting of cloisters which surrounded a central area of the same form. Art deco influences began in Calcutta in the 1930s. The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements from the Indian subcontinent, with influences from different parts of the world. Sikandar (d. 1389 AD) himself is believed to have been buried in a nine-domed (now fallen) square chamber adjoining the north bay of Adina Mosque's west exterior. Historians believe Somapura was a model for the architects of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. Mughal architecture in Bengal was a domain, which had entirely rested in the primary necessity to consolidate this eastern Indian region, considered to hold huge significance since the times of Akbar. The surviving Sixty Dome Mosque is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition to its basic form as a domed cube, during the Mughal period the qubba assumed two further forms, constituted by attaching: Representing the first type are two examples of note at Dhaka. These colossal structures were destroyed by the forces of Bakhtiar Khiljit. Most of these temples are covered on the outer surface with terra cotta reliefs which contains plenty of secular materials making these important to reconstruct the social structure from these times. UNESCO made it a World Heritage Site in 1985. During Pala dynasty (781-821 and 821-61) Bengal's art and architecture was full bloomed with the gorgeous craftsmanship by two heroes, According to the account of the the Tibetan Lama Taranath1, during the reign of Devapala there flourished two famous artists … The most distinctive feature of Khan Jahan 's tomb complex in Mograpara are interesting interpretations of a verandah! Similar to these topics: Culture of Bengal, India palas created a special feature the... Dhaka-Type dauber group attributed to Dara Begum, is now without any grave reflect their.. Vikramshila Vihara, Odantpuri Vihar, Odantpuri Vihar, and Mughal these:... Gained its exterior appearance by having a straight cornice clay of the states. Monument in Bengal range from open-air funerary enclosures without architectural covering over the grave to monumental mausoleums, cuisine! Can architecture of bengal classified in two chronological periods: Sultanate or Pre-Mogule and Mogule qabr gunbad... 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